- The Fundamental Duties of citizens were listed under Part IV-A (Article51A) of the Constitution were introduced by the 42nd Amendment in 1976.
- They are added on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by Indira Gandhi in 1975.
- The idea has been taken from the former Soviet Constitution, now even Russia doesn’t have them.
- Originally ten duties were added to Article 51A.
- The Fundamental Duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002.
The list of 11 Fundamental Duties are:
- To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired the national struggle for freedom.
- To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and perform national services if and when the country requires.
- To promote the spirit of harmony and brotherhood amongst all people of India and renounce any practices that are derogatory to women.
- To cherish and preserve the rich national heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, wildlife, rivers, forests, etc.
- To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry.
- To safeguard all public property.
- To strive towards excellence in all genres of individual and collective activities
- To provide opportunities of education to the children between 6-14 years of age and parents to ensure that such opportunities are being awarded to their child.