National Symbols Of India
- The Republic of India has several official national symbols including a historical document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes.
- All the symbols were picked up at various times. The design of the national flag was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly just before independence, on the 22nd of July in 1947.
- There are also several other symbols including the national animal, bird, flower, fruit and tree and game.
- The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of India saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra.
- The top saffron colour, indicates the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The green shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land.
- Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.
The National Anthem of India Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Kolkata Session of the Indian National Congress.
The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.
Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. On January 24, 1950, the President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad came up with a statement in the Constituent Assembly, “the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it.”
The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The song was a part of Bankimchandra’s most famous novel Anand Math (1882).
Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI).
|S. No||Category||Symbol||Related Persons / Details|
|1||National Flag of India||Horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre||Our National Flag was designed by Mr. Pingali Venkayya of Andhra Pradesh. It was adopted during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947.|
|2||State Emblem of India||An adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka||It is preserved in the Varanasi Sarnath Museum in India. the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950.|
|3||National Anthem of India||“Jana Gana Mana”||It was composed in Bengali by poet Rabindranath Tagore. was adopted in its Hindi version on 24 January 1950. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now, Kolkata).|
|4||National Song of India||“Vande Mataram”||It is a Bengali poem written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath. The poem was composed into song by Rabindranath Tagore. The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947. After Independence, it was adopted on Jan 24th, 1950.|
|5||National Pledge||It was originally written by the Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao ( an author and a bureaucrat) in Telugu language in 1962. First it was read in the Visakhapatnam in 1963 in a school. Later it was translated to various regional languages accordingly. The practice of reciting it in the schools was introduced in 1965 on 26th of January|
|6||National Currency||Indian Rupee||The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant “र” (ra) and the Latin letter “R” was adopted in 2010. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam born 10 October 1978 in Kallakurichi, Tamil Nadu is the designer of the Indian rupee sign. He is an assistant professor at IIT Guwahati.|
|7||National Calendar of India||Calendar based on Saka Era||Usage started officially at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee. The “Day of Silence”, is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali.|
|8||National Animal of India||Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)||Adopted in April, 1973. The largest carnivore is found only in the Indian subcontinent|
|9||National River of India||River Ganga||It was declared on November 4, 2008. The Ganga is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River.|
|10||National Heritage Animal of India||Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)||Declared on october 22, 2010 by Environment Ministry of India.|
|11||National Aquatic Animal of India||Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)||Declared on 5th October. Guwahati is the first Indian city to have an animal Mascot as Gangetic river dolphin, It is the first city in India to have a city animal. River dolphin is locally known as Sihu|
|12||National Bird of India||Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus)||Declared on February 1, 1963. Indian Peacock or Blue Peacock (Pavo cristatus).|
|13||National Tree of India||Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis)||Adopted on 1950.|
|14||National Flower of India||Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)||It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.|
|15||National Fruit of India||Mango (Mangifera indica)||The great Moghul emperor Akabar had planted about 100,000 mango trees in Lakhi Bagh in Darbhanga.|
|16||National Microbe||Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus||It has been announced on October 18, 2012 during the International Conference on ‘Biodiversity Conservation and Education for Sustainable Development held at Hyderabad during CoP-11. The microbe was selected by children who had visited the Science Express Biodiversity Special Train.|